Security researchers have discovered a total of 3938 unique secrets on PyPI, the official third-party package management system for the Python community, across all projects, with 768 of them validated as authentic.
Notably, 2922 projects contained at least one unique secret. Among the leaked secrets were various credentials, including AWS Keys, Redis credentials, Google API keys and various database credentials.
The research, published on GitGuardian by Python developer Tom Forbes, underscores the potential consequences of such leaks, emphasizing that valid credentials are a primary vector for cyber-attacks.
The Python Package Index, home to over 450,000 projects, plays a crucial role in the software supply chain, constituting an estimated 90% of code run in production. Forbes said the research underscores the need for enhanced security measures due to the accidental inclusion of secrets in open source packages. This problem has reportedly seen a steady increase over time.
The blog post also revealed trends in the types of secrets leaked, with notable increases in valid Telegram bot tokens, Google API key leaks and a surge in leaked database credentials in 2022. The data suggests that leaked credentials have become a leading cause of breaches in 2023.
Furthermore, the study shed light on the exposure methods, indicating that most secrets are leaked accidentally.
“Just as it is all too easy to make a private repo a public repo, [it] just takes a few wrong keystrokes to push a package intended for internal use into public availability,” Forbes wrote.
“In the course of outreach for this project, we discovered at least 15 incidents where the publisher was unaware they had made their project public.”
Forbes thus highlighted incidents where large companies inadvertently made their projects public, emphasizing the need for heightened awareness and preventive measures.
“Exposing secrets in open-source packages carries significant risks for developers and users alike. Attackers can exploit this information to gain unauthorized access, impersonate package maintainers or manipulate users through social engineering tactics,” the blog post reads.
To tackle these issues, the researcher recommended strategies such as avoiding unencrypted credentials, implementing automated secrets scanning and leveraging cloud secrets managers.