Asylum Ambuscade: crimeware or cyberespionage?

Cyber Security

A curious case of a threat actor at the border between crimeware and cyberespionage

Asylum Ambuscade is a cybercrime group that has been performing cyberespionage operations on the side. They were first publicly outed in March 2022 by Proofpoint researchers after the group targeted European government staff involved in helping Ukrainian refugees, just a few weeks after the start of the Russia-Ukraine war. In this blogpost, we provide details about the early 2022 espionage campaign and about multiple cybercrime campaigns in 2022 and 2023.

Key points of this blogpost:

  • Asylum Ambuscade has been operating since at least 2020.
  • It is a crimeware group that targets bank customers and cryptocurrency traders in various regions, including North America and Europe.
  • Asylum Ambuscade also does espionage against government entities in Europe and Central Asia.
  • Most of the group’s implants are developed in script languages such as AutoHotkey, JavaScript, Lua, Python, and VBS.

Cyberespionage campaigns

Asylum Ambuscade has been running cyberespionage campaigns since at least 2020. We found previous compromises of government officials and employees of state-owned companies in Central Asia countries and Armenia.

In 2022, and as highlighted in the Proofpoint publication, the group targeted government officials in several European countries bordering Ukraine. We assess that the goal of the attackers was to steal confidential information and webmail credentials from official government webmail portals.

The compromise chain starts with a spearphishing email that has a malicious Excel spreadsheet attachment. Malicious VBA code therein downloads an MSI package from a remote server and installs SunSeed, a downloader written in Lua.

Note that we observed some variations in the attachments. In June 2022, the group used an exploit of the Follina vulnerability (CVE-2022-30190) instead of malicious VBA code. This document is shown in Figure 1. It is written in Ukrainian and the decoy is about a security alert regarding a Gamaredon (another well-known espionage group) attack in Ukraine.

Figure 1. Document leveraging the Follina vulnerability

Then, if the machine is deemed interesting, the attackers deploy the next stage: AHKBOT. This is a downloader written in AutoHotkey that can be extended with plugins, also written in AutoHotkey, in order to spy on the victim’s machine. An analysis of the group’s toolset is provided later in the blogpost.

Cybercrime campaigns

Even though the group came into the spotlight because of its cyberespionage operations, it has been mostly running cybercrime campaigns since early 2020.

Since January 2022, we have counted more than 4,500 victims worldwide. While most of them are located in North America, as shown in Figure 2, it should be noted that we have also seen victims in Asia, Africa, Europe, and South America.

Figure 2. Geographical distribution of victims since January 2022

The targeting is very wide and mostly includes individuals, cryptocurrency traders, and small and medium businesses (SMBs) in various verticals.

While the goal of targeting cryptocurrency traders is quite obvious – stealing cryptocurrency – we don’t know for sure how Asylum Ambuscade monetizes its access to SMBs. It is possible the group sells the access to other crimeware groups who might, for example, deploy ransomware. We have not observed this in our telemetry, though.

Asylum Ambuscade’s crimeware compromise chain is, overall, very similar to the one we describe for the cyberespionage campaigns. The main difference is the compromise vector, which can be:

  • A malicious Google Ad redirecting to a website delivering a malicious JavaScript file (as highlighted in this SANS blogpost)
  • Multiple HTTP redirections in a Traffic Direction System (TDS). The TDS used by the group is referred to as 404 TDS by Proofpoint. It is not exclusive to Asylum Ambuscade and we observed it was, for example, used by another threat actor to deliver Qbot. An example of a redirection chain, captured by io, is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. 404 TDS redirection chain, as captured by – numbers indicate the redirections in sequence

In addition to the different compromise vector, the group developed SunSeed equivalents in other scripting languages such as Tcl and VBS. In March 2023, it developed an AHKBOT equivalent in Node.js that we named NODEBOT. We believe those changes were intended to bypass detections from security products. An overview of the compromise chain is provided in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Compromise chain


We believe that the cyberespionage and cybercrime campaigns are operated by the same group.

  • The compromise chains are almost identical in all campaigns. In particular, SunSeed and AHKBOT have been widely used for both cybercrime and cyberespionage.
  • We don’t believe that SunSeed and AHKBOT are sold on the underground market. These tools are not very sophisticated in comparison to other crimeware tools for sale, the number of victims is quite low were it a toolset shared among multiple groups, and the network infrastructure is consistent across campaigns.

As such, we believe that Asylum Ambuscade is a cybercrime group that is doing some cyberespionage on the side.

We also believe that these three articles describe incidents related to the group:


Malicious JavaScript files

In most crimeware campaigns run by the group, the compromise vector is not a malicious document, but a JavaScript file downloaded from the previously documented TDS. Note that it has to be manually executed by the victim, so the attackers are trying to entice people into clicking on the files by using filenames such as Document_12_dec-1532825.js, TeamViewer_Setup.js, or AnyDeskInstall.js.

Those scripts are obfuscated using random variable names and junk code, most likely intended to bypass detections. An example is provided in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Obfuscated JavaScript downloader

Once deobfuscated, this script can be summarized in two lines:

First-stage downloaders

The first stage downloaders are dropped by an MSI package downloaded by either a malicious document or a JavaScript file. There are three versions of this downloader:

  • Lua (SunSeed)
  • Tcl
  • VBS

SunSeed is a downloader written in the Lua language and heavily obfuscated, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. The SunSeed Lua variant is heavily obfuscated

Once manually deobfuscated, the main function of the script looks like this:

It gets the serial number of the C: drive and sends a GET request to http://<C&C>/<serial_number> using the User-Agent LuaSocket 2.0.2. It then tries to execute the reply. This means that SunSeed expects to receive additional Lua scripts from the C&C server. We found two of those scripts: install and move.

install is a simple Lua script that downloads an AutoHotkey script into C:ProgramDatamscoree.ahk and the legitimate AutoHotkey interpreter into C:ProgramDatamscoree.exe, as shown in Figure 7. This AutoHotkey script is AHKBOT, the second stage downloader.

Figure 7. Lua script that downloads an AutoHotkey script

An even simpler Lua script, move, is shown in Figure 8. It is used to reassign management of a victimized computer from one C&C server to another. It is not possible to update the hardcoded SunSeed C&C server; to complete a C&C reassignment, a new MSI installer needs to be downloaded and executed, exactly as when the machine was first compromised.

Figure 8. Lua script to move management of a compromised machine from one C&C server to another

As mentioned above, we found another variant of SunSeed developed using the Tcl language instead of Lua, as shown in Figure 9. The main difference is that it doesn’t send the C: drive’s serial number in the GET request.

Figure 9. SunSeed variant in Tcl

The third variant was developed in VBS, as shown in Figure 10. The main difference is that it doesn’t download and interpret additional code, but downloads and executes an MSI package.

Figure 10. SunSeed variant in VBS

Second-stage downloaders

The main second-stage downloader is AHKBOT, developed in AutoHotkey. As shown in Figure 11, it sends a GET request, with the User-Agent AutoHotkey (the default value used by AutoHotkey), to http://<C&C>/<serial_number_of_C_drive>-RP, almost exactly as the earlier SunSeed. RP might be a campaign identifier, as it changes from sample to sample.

Figure 11. AHKBOT

AHKBOT can be found on disk at various locations, such as C:ProgramDatamscoree.ahk or C:ProgramDataadb.ahk. It downloads and interprets spy plugins, also developed in AutoHotkey. A summary of the 21 plugins is provided in Table 1.

Table 1. SunSeed plugins

Plugin name Description
ass Download and execute a Cobalt Strike loader packed with VMProtect. The beacon’s configuration extracted using the tool CobaltStrikeParser is provided in the IoCs in the Cobalt Strike configuration section.
connect Send the log message connected! to the C&C server.
deletecookies Download SQLite from /download?path=sqlite3slashsqlite3dotdll via HTTP from its C&C server, then delete browser cookies for the domains (a Canadian bank) and We don’t know why the attackers need to delete cookies, especially for these domains. It’s possible it is intended to delete session cookies to force its victims to reenter their credentials that would then be captured by the keylogger.
deskscreen Take a screenshot using Gdip.BitmapFromScreen and send it to the C&C server.
deskscreenon Similar to deskscreen but take screenshots in a 15-second loop.
deskscreenoff Stop the deskscreenon loop.
domain Gather information about the Active Directory using the following commands:
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && net group “domain admins” /domain
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && net group “enterprise admins” /domain
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && net group “”Domain Computers”” /domain
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && nltest /dclist:
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && nltest /DOMAIN_TRUSTS
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && ipconfig /all
· cmd /c chcp 65001 && systeminfo
hardware Get victim’s host information using WMI queries:
· Select * from Win32_OperatingSystem
· SELECT * FROM Win32_LogicalDisk
· SELECT * FROM Win32_Processor
· Select * from Win32_OperatingSystem
· SELECT * FROM Win32_VideoController
· Select * from Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration WHERE IPEnabled = True
· Select * from FirewallProduct
· Select * from AntiSpywareProduct
· Select * from AntiVirusProduct
· SELECT * FROM Win32_Product
· SELECT Caption,ExecutablePath,ProcessID FROM Win32_Process where ExecutablePath is not null

and send to the C&C server.
hvncon Download and execute a custom hVNC (hidden VNC) application from
hvncoff Stop the hVNC by executing taskkill /f /im hvnc.exe.
installchrome Download http:///download?path=chromeslashchromedotzip, a legitimate copy of Google Chrome, and unpack it into %LocalAppData%Google‌ChromeApplication. This copy of Chrome is likely used by hVNC if the victim doesn’t have Chrome installed.
keylogon Start the keylogger, hooked input using DllCall(“SetWindowsHookEx”, […]). The keystrokes are sent to the C&C server when the active application changes.
keylogoff Stop the keylogger.
passwords Steal passwords from Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chromium-based browsers. It downloads SQLite to read the browser storages. It can also decrypt locally encrypted passwords by calling the Microsoft CryptUnprotectData function. Stolen passwords are sent to the C&C server.

This plugin looks very similar to the password stealer described by Trend Micro in 2020, including the hard drive serial numbers used for debugging: 605109072 and 2786990575. This could indicate that it is still being developed on the same machines.

rutservon Download a remote access trojan (RAT) from http://<C&C>/‌download?path=rutservslashagent6dot10dotexe (SHA-1: 3AA8A4554B175DB9DA5EEB7824B5C047638A6A9D).
This is a commercial RAT developed by Remote Utilities LLC that provides full control over the machine on which it is installed.
rutservoff Kill the RAT.
steal Download and execute an infostealer – probably based on Rhadamanthys.
tasklist List running processes by using the WMI query Select * from Win32_Process.
towake Move the mouse using MouseMove, 100, 100. This is likely to prevent the computer from going to sleep, especially given the name of the plugin.
update Download a new version of SunSeed AutoHotkey from the C&C server and replace the current SunSeed on disk. The AutoHotkey interpreter is located in C:ProgramDataadb.exe.
wndlist List active windows by calling WinGet windows, List (Autohotkey syntax).

The plugins send the result back to the C&C server using a log function, as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Log function

In March 2023, the attackers developed a variant of AHKBOT in Node.js that we have named NODEBOT – see Figure 13.

Figure 13. NODEBOT

The attackers also rewrote some AHKBOT plugins in JavaScript to make them compatible with NODEBOT. So far, we have observed the following plugins (an asterisk indicates that the plugin is new to NODEBOT):

  • connect
  • deskscreen
  • hardware
  • hcmdon (a reverse shell in Node.js)*
  • hvncoff
  • hvncon
  • keylogoff
  • keylogon (download and execute the AutoHotkey keylogger)
  • mods (download and install hVNC)*
  • passwords
  • screen


Asylum Ambuscade is a cybercrime group mostly targeting SMBs and individuals in North America and Europe. However, it appears to be branching out, running some recent cyberespionage campaigns on the side, against governments in Central Asia and Europe from time to time.

It is quite unusual to catch a cybercrime group running dedicated cyberespionage operations, and as such we believe that researchers should keep close track of Asylum Ambuscade activities.

ESET Research offers private APT intelligence reports and data feeds. For any inquiries about this service, visit the ESET Threat Intelligence page.



SHA-1 Filename ESET detection name Description
2B42FD41A1C8AC12221857DD2DF93164A71B95D7 ass.dll Win64/Packed.VMProtect.OX Cobalt Strike loader.
D5F8ACAD643EE8E1D33D184DAEA0C8EA8E7FD6F8 M_suri antiinfla_ioniste Polonia.doc DOC/TrojanDownloader.Agent.AAP Document exploiting the Follina vulnerability.
57157C5D3C1BB3EB3E86B24B1F4240C867A5E94F N/A Win32/TrojanDownloader.AutoHK.KH AHKBOT.
7DB446B95D5198330B2B25E4BA6429C57942CFC9 N/A VBS/Agent.QOF Python screenshotter.
5F67279C195F5E8A35A24CBEA76E25BAD6AB6E8E N/A VBS/TrojanDownloader.Agent.YDQ VBS downloader.
C98061592DE61E34DA280AB179465580947890DE install.msi JS/Agent.QRI NODEBOT.
519E388182DE055902C656B2D95CCF265A96CEAB Document_12_dec-1532825.js JS/TrojanDownloader.Agent.ZJM Malicious JavaScript file distributed via the TDS.
AC3AFD14AD1AEA9E77A84C84022B4022DF1FC88B ahk Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
64F5AC9F0C6C12F2A48A1CB941847B0662734FBF ass Win32/TrojanDownloader.AHK.N AHKBOT plugin.
557C5150A44F607EC4E7F4D0C0ED8EE6E9D12ADF connect Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
F85B82805C6204F34DB0858E2F04DA9F620A0277 deletecookies Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
5492061DE582E71B2A5DA046536D4150F6F497F1 deskscreen Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
C554100C15ED3617EBFAAB00C983CED5FEC5DB11 deskscreenoff Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
AD8143DE4FC609608D8925478FD8EA3CD9A37C5D deskscreenon Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
F2948C27F044FC6FB4849332657801F78C0F7D5E domain Win32/TrojanDownloader.AutoHK.KH AHKBOT plugin.
7AA23E871E796F89C465537E6ECE962412CDA636 hardware Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
384961E19624437EB4EB22B1BF45953D7147FB8F hvncoff Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
7FDB9A73B3F13DBD94D392132D896A5328DACA59 hvncon Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
3E38D54CC55A48A3377A7E6A0800B09F2E281978 installchrome Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
7F8742778FC848A6FBCFFEC9011B477402544171 keylogoff Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
29604997030752919EA42B6D6CEE8D3AE28F527E keylogon Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
7A78AF75841C2A8D8A5929C214F08EB92739E9CB passwords Win32/Spy.AHK.AB AHKBOT plugin.
441369397D0F8DB755282739A05CB4CF52113C40 rutservoff Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
117ECFA95BE19D5CF135A27AED786C98EC8CE50B rutservon Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
D24A9C8A57C08D668F7D4A5B96FB7B5BA89D74C3 steal Win32/Spy.AHK.AE AHKBOT plugin.
95EDC096000C5B8DA7C8F93867F736928EA32575 towake Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
62FA77DAEF21772D599F2DC17DBBA0906B51F2D9 update Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
A9E3ACFE029E3A80372C0BB6B7C500531D09EDBE wndlist Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.
EE1CFEDD75CBA9028904C759740725E855AA46B5 tasklist Win32/Spy.AHK.AD AHKBOT plugin.


IP Domain Hosting provider First seen Details
5.39.222[.]150 N/A Hostkey_NL abuse, ORG-HB14-RIPE February 27, 2022 C&C server.
5.44.42[.]27 snowzet[.]com GLOBAL INTERNET SOLUTIONS LLC December 7, 2022 Cobalt Strike C&C server.
5.230.68[.]137 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH September 5, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.71[.]166 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH August 17, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.72[.]38 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH September 24, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.72[.]148 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH September 26, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]57 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH August 9, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]63 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH June 2, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]241 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH August 20, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]247 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH August 9, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]248 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH June 1, 2022 C&C server.
5.230.73[.]250 N/A GHOSTnet GmbH June 2, 2022 C&C server.
5.252.118[.]132 N/A aezagroup March 1, 2023 C&C server.
5.252.118[.]204 N/A aezagroup March 1, 2023 C&C server.
5.255.88[.]222 N/A Serverius May 28, 2022 C&C server.
23.106.123[.]119 N/A IRT-LSW-SG February 4, 2022 C&C server.
31.192.105[.]28 N/A HOSTKEY B.V. February 23, 2022 C&C server.
45.76.211[.]131 N/A The Constant Company, LLC January 19, 2023 C&C server.
45.77.185[.]151 N/A Vultr Holdings, LLC December 16, 2022 C&C server.
45.132.1[.]238 N/A Miglovets Egor Andreevich November 7, 2022 C&C server.
45.147.229[.]20 N/A COMBAHTON January 22, 2022 C&C server.
46.17.98[.]190 N/A Hostkey_NL abuse, ORG-HB14-RIPE August 31, 2020 C&C server.
46.151.24[.]197 N/A Hosting technology LTD January 1, 2023 C&C server.
46.151.24[.]226 N/A Hosting technology LTD December 23, 2022 C&C server.
46.151.25[.]15 N/A Hosting technology LTD December 27, 2022 C&C server.
46.151.25[.]49 N/A Podolsk Electrosvyaz Ltd. December 29, 2022 C&C server.
46.151.28[.]18 N/A Hosting technology LTD January 1, 2023 C&C server.
51.83.182[.]153 N/A OVH March 8, 2022 C&C server.
51.83.189[.]185 N/A OVH March 5, 2022 C&C server.
62.84.99[.]195 N/A VDSINA-NL March 27, 2023 C&C server.
62.204.41[.]171 N/A HORIZONMSK-AS December 12, 2022 C&C server.
77.83.197[.]138 N/A HZ-UK-AS March 7, 2022 C&C server.
79.137.196[.]121 N/A AEZA GROUP Ltd March 1, 2023 C&C server.
79.137.197[.]187 N/A aezagroup December 1, 2022 C&C server.
80.66.88[.]155 N/A XHOST INTERNET SOLUTIONS LP February 24, 2022 C&C server.
84.32.188[.]29 N/A UAB Cherry Servers January 10, 2022 C&C server.
84.32.188[.]96 N/A UAB Cherry Servers January 29, 2022 C&C server.
85.192.49[.]106 N/A Hosting technology LTD December 25, 2022 C&C server.
85.192.63[.]13 N/A AEZA GROUP Ltd December 27, 2022 C&C server.
85.192.63[.]126 N/A aezagroup March 5, 2023 C&C server.
85.239.60[.]40 N/A Clouvider April 30, 2022 C&C server.
88.210.10[.]62 N/A Hosting technology LTD December 12, 2022 C&C server.
89.41.182[.]94 N/A Abuse-C Role, ORG-HS136-RIPE September 3, 2021 C&C server.
89.107.10[.]7 N/A Miglovets Egor Andreevich December 4, 2022 C&C server.
89.208.105[.]255 N/A AEZA GROUP Ltd December 22, 2022 C&C server.
91.245.253[.]112 N/A M247 Europe March 4, 2022 C&C server.
94.103.83[.]46 N/A Hosting technology LTD December 11, 2022 C&C server.
94.140.114[.]133 N/A NANO-AS March 8, 2022 C&C server.
94.140.114[.]230 N/A NANO-AS April 13, 2022 C&C server.
94.140.115[.]44 N/A NANO-AS April 1, 2022 C&C server.
94.232.41[.]96 N/A XHOST INTERNET SOLUTIONS LP October 2, 2022 C&C server.
94.232.41[.]108 N/A XHOST INTERNET SOLUTIONS LP August 19, 2022 C&C server.
94.232.43[.]214 N/A XHOST-INTERNET-SOLUTIONS October 10, 2022 C&C server.
98.142.251[.]26 N/A BlueVPS OU April 29, 2022 C&C server.
98.142.251[.]226 N/A BlueVPS OU April 12, 2022 C&C server.
104.234.118[.]163 N/A IPXO LLC March 1, 2023 C&C server.
104.248.149[.]122 N/A DigitalOcean, LLC December 11, 2022 C&C server.
109.107.173[.]72 N/A Hosting technology LTD January 20, 2023 C&C server.
116.203.252[.]67 N/A Hetzner Online GmbH – Contact Role, ORG-HOA1-RIPE March 5, 2022 C&C server.
128.199.82[.]141 N/A Digital Ocean December 11, 2022 C&C server.
139.162.116[.]148 N/A Akamai Connected Cloud March 3, 2022 C&C server.
141.105.64[.]121 N/A HOSTKEY B.V. March 21, 2022 C&C server.
146.0.77[.]15 N/A Hostkey_NL April 10, 2022 C&C server.
146.70.79[.]117 N/A M247 Ltd March 2, 2022 C&C server.
157.254.194[.]225 N/A Tier.Net Technologies LLC March 1, 2023 C&C server.
157.254.194[.]238 N/A Tier.Net Technologies LLC March 13, 2023 C&C server.
172.64.80[.]1[.]id Cloudflare, Inc. December 14, 2022 C&C server.
172.86.75[.]49 N/A BL Networks May 17, 2021 C&C server.
172.104.94[.]104 N/A Linode March 5, 2022 C&C server.
172.105.235[.]94 N/A Linode April 5, 2022 C&C server.
172.105.253[.]139 N/A Akamai Connected Cloud March 3, 2022 C&C server.
176.124.214[.]229 N/A VDSINA-NL December 26, 2022 C&C server.
176.124.217[.]20 N/A Hosting technology LTD March 2, 2023 C&C server.
185.70.184[.]44 N/A Hostkey_NL April 12, 2021 C&C server.
185.82.126[.]133 N/A Sia Nano IT March 12, 2022 C&C server.
185.123.53[.]49 N/A BV-EU-AS March 14, 2022 C&C server.
185.150.117[.]122 N/A UAB Cherry Servers April 2, 2021 C&C server.
185.163.45[.]221 N/A MivoCloud SRL January 2, 2023 C&C server.
193.109.69[.]52 N/A Hostkey_NL November 5, 2021 C&C server.
193.142.59[.]152 N/A HostShield LTD Admin November 17, 2022 C&C server.
193.142.59[.]169 N/A ColocationX Ltd. November 8, 2022 C&C server.
194.180.174[.]51 N/A MivoCloud SRL December 24, 2022 C&C server.
195.2.81[.]70 N/A Hosting technology LTD September 27, 2022 C&C server.
195.133.196[.]230 N/A JSC Mediasoft ekspert July 15, 2022 C&C server.
212.113.106[.]27 N/A AEZA GROUP Ltd January 28, 2023 C&C server.
212.113.116[.]147 N/A JY Mobile Communications March 1, 2023 C&C server.
212.118.43[.]231 N/A Hosting technology LTD March 1, 2023 C&C server.
213.109.192[.]230 N/A BV-EU-AS June 1, 2022 C&C server.

Cobalt Strike configuration

MITRE ATT&CK techniques

This table was built using version 13 of the MITRE ATT&CK framework.

Tactic ID Name Description
Resource Development T1583.003 Acquire Infrastructure: Virtual Private Server Asylum Ambuscade rented VPS servers.
T1587.001 Develop Capabilities: Malware Asylum Ambuscade develops custom implants in various scripting languages.
Initial Access T1189 Drive-by Compromise Targets were redirected via a TDS to a website delivering a malicious JavaScript file.
T1566.001 Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment Targets receive malicious Excel or Word documents.
Execution T1059.005 Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic Asylum Ambuscade has a downloader in VBS.
T1059.006 Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python Asylum Ambuscade has a screenshotter in Python.
T1059.007 Command and Scripting Interpreter: JavaScript Asylum Ambuscade has a downloader in JavaScript (NODEBOT).
T1059 Command and Scripting Interpreter Asylum Ambuscade has downloaders in other scripting languages such as Lua, AutoHotkey, or Tcl.
T1204.002 User Execution: Malicious File Targets needs to manually execute the malicious document or JavaScript file.
Persistence T1547.001 Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder SunSeed persists via a LNK file in the startup folder.
Defense Evasion T1027.010 Obfuscated Files or Information: Command Obfuscation Downloaded JavaScript files are obfuscated with junk code.
Credential Access T1555.003 Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers AHKBOT passwords plugin can steal browser credentials.
Discovery T1087.002 Account Discovery: Domain Account AHKBOT domain plugin gathers information about the domain using net group.
T1010 Application Window Discovery AHKBOT wndlist plugin lists the active windows.
T1482 Domain Trust Discovery AHKBOT domain plugin gathers information using nltest.
T1057 Process Discovery AHKBOT tasklist plugin lists the active processes using Select * from Win32_Process.
T1518.001 Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery AHKBOT hardware plugin lists security software using Select * from FirewallProduct, Select * from AntiSpywareProduct and Select * from AntiVirusProduct.
T1082 System Information Discovery AHKBOT wndlist plugin gets system information using systeminfo.
T1016 System Network Configuration Discovery AHKBOT wndlist plugin gets network configuration information using ipconfig /all.
Collection T1056.001 Input Capture: Keylogging AHKBOT keylogon records keystrokes.
T1115 Clipboard Data AHKBOT keylogon monitors the clipboard.
T1113 Screen Capture AHKBOT deskscreen takes screenshot.
Command and Control T1071.001 Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols AHKBOT (and all the other downloaders) communicates with the C&C server via HTTP.
Exfiltration T1041 Exfiltration Over C2 Channel Data is exfiltrated via the C&C channel.

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